For weeks, blistering heat has swept across India, Pakistan and other parts of Asia – leaving millions of people struggling with severe impacts.
The extreme heat first began in early March, with temperatures reaching above 47C in India by the end of April and 49.5C in Pakistan in May.
一个cross south Asia, the sweltering temperatures have been linked to an uptick in heat-related deaths, wheat crop failures, power outages and fires – with poor and marginalised communities particularly affected.
Climate change – largely driven by the burning of fossil fuels – has contributed to an increase in the frequency and severity of heatwaves in every world region, including South Asia, according to theworld’s leading climate authority.
In this article, Carbon Brief examines how the media has covered the spring heatwaves in India, Pakistan and other parts of Asia, including an analysis of how different titles reported on the role of climate change.
- What is happening with heatwaves in Asia?
- What are the impacts of the extreme heat?
- 气候变化在heatwav !什么角色es?
- What has the media response been in India and internationally?
What is happening with heatwaves in Asia?
Parts of central, south and western Asia, including India and Pakistan, first began experiencing extreme heat in March, theWashington Postreported.
India’s Meteorological Department (IMD) said March maximum temperatures were at their highest in 122 years in the country, according to the newspaper.
一个t the same time, it added, Pakistan “had the highest worldwide positive temperature anomaly during the month of March, meaning the margin between observed temperatures and averaged temperatures there was bigger than anywhere else across the globe”.
Brutal & record breaking heat is testing power and health infrastructure to the limit in some of the most densely populated places on the planet.— Scott Duncan (@ScottDuncanWX)一个pril 29, 2022
The heat in Southern & Western Asia for March & April really stands out for both longevity and intensity.pic.twitter.com/ebYNPLkrz8
The arrival of heat in India in March is “unusually early”,一个ssociated Pressreported, noting that the country’s summer months are considered to be April, May and June.
Northwest India, including the capital territory Delhi, was particularly affected by the March heat, according to theWire.
Quartz Indiaadded that 2022 is the second year in a row where March temperatures have been unseasonably high across the country, with 2021 recording the third hottest March on record.
India Todayreported that the IMD considers an area to be experiencing a heatwave if maximum temperatures exceed 40C in lowland regions, or at least 30C in the highlands, for at leasttwo consecutive days.
一个heatwave is also declared if temperatures are 4.5-6.4C above average, with temperatures 6.4C above normal classified as a “severe heatwave”, according to the publication.
It noted that the threshold for heatwaves was much higher in India than the UK. (In March, the UK’s Met Officeraised its thresholdfor heatwaves from 27C to 28C in the warmest parts of the country.)
一个scientist at IMD told India Today that the thresholds differ because “different countries have different climate conditions”. He added:
“The Indian sub-continent has a tropical climate with high temperatures. Therefore, in countries like India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka heatwaves [are] declared at higher temperatures compared to that of the UK.”
The heat continued into early April, with parts of India and Pakistan experiencing 42.6C and 43C, respectively, in the first week of the month.
一个t the same time, other parts of Asia sweltered in unusual heat. Temperatures in Uzbekistan reached 30-33C, 8-10C above average for early April, according to theThird Pole.
Meanwhile, Ashgabat, the capital of Turkmenistan, experienced temperatures of 36.6C – 6C higher than the previous record for this date, set in 1991, the Third Pole reported.
By 8 April, seven Indian cities were experiencing temperatures above 44C, theHindustan Timesreported, with Kandla in Gujarat experiencing 45C heat.
The above-40C heat continued to engulf India throughout April, with northern and eastern states – including West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand and Odisha – particularly affected,Telegraph Indiareported.
On the last day of April, temperatures in Jacobabad, Pakistan hit 49C – the first recording of 49C heat in the northern hemisphere this year, theGuardianreported.
Just in ! Last day of April has witnessed the temperature reaching 49.0C at Jacobabad,Pakistan. First 48C and 49C in the Northern Hemisphere of 2022. 48.0C also at Moen Jo Daro. More updates later with more monthly records falling in India…Stay tuned.pic.twitter.com/A4e6Fkyllh— Extreme Temperatures Around The World (@extremetemps)一个pril 30, 2022
一个nd temperatures in Pakistan climbed higher still – with Nawabshah hitting 49.5C on 1 May,一个xiosreported.
Meanwhile, in India, temperatures in Banda, Uttar Pradesh, reached 47.2C on 29 April – a record for the month in the city, Axios said. Other such records were set on 30 April in Gurgaon, Chandigarh and Dharamshala. The month as a whole is likely to be the hottest April on record for northwestern India, it added.
On 2 May, theHindustan Timesreported that the heat is likely to subside in most parts of India this week, with the IMD predicting stormy weather in Delhi, eastern and northeastern states in the coming days.
一个batement of Heat wave conditions over most parts of the country.— India Meteorological Department (@Indiametdept)May 2, 2022
Thunderstorm/gusty winds very likely over Northwest India till 04th may; over East India & south Peninsular India till 06th May and over Northeast India till 03rd May, 2022.pic.twitter.com/T7e4zSswxR
一个ndReutersreported that India’s monsoon rains – which typically bring relief after the hot summer months – are expected to be “average” this year.
On 12 May,英国气象办公室forecasted that the “brutal heatwave that enveloped parts of southern Asia since the end of April looks set to intensify”.
On 14 May, temperatures in Pakistan’s Jacobabad rose to 51C, setting a global heat record for 2022.
Bloombergreported that on 15 May, government tankers meant to deliver water to slums in southwestern Delhi had been cancelled on a day when temperatures touched 41C.
The next day, Mungeshpur in northwestern Delhi hit 49.2C, making it the hottest place in India, theHindustan Timesreported.
What are the impacts of the extreme heat?
On 25 April, the IMD issued heatwavewarningsover several districts of West Bengal, warning residents to avoid prolonged heat exposure.
“Recognise the signs of heat stroke, heat rash or heat cramps, such as weakness, dizziness, headache, nausea, sweating and seizures. If you feel faint or ill, see a doctor/ hospital immediately,” the bulletinsaid.
By the afternoon of 28 April, heat-related watches were “in effect in all but a few of India’s 28 states, encompassing hundreds of millions of people and most of the country’s major cities,” theNew York Timesreported.
Hospitals quickly began to fill up, as people succumbed to the heat.TheFinancial Timesquoted Dr Madhav Thombre, a general practitioner based in Mumbai, who said:
“We are seeing many cases of heat exhaustion, dysentery, body ache – and the number of viral fever cases have increased too since the last two weeks.”
“Poorer women are particularly vulnerable to heat stress because they tend to work from home without air conditioning, while they also cook, which is hot work, and gather provisions and water from outside the house,” theIndependentadded.
Writing inClimate Home News, Delhi resident Sapna Verma said “the heat in Delhi is unbearable”. In the article, Verma described falling ill after walking 2km in the mid-afternoon sun. She continued:
“A couple of days later, returning from the office, I took a cycle rickshaw, pulled by a man who must have been in his mid-40s. Throughout the 15-minute ride to my home, the rickshaw puller, a Muslim, kept quiet. But while waiting at a red light he said he would not be able to maintain his Ramadan fast until evening because of the heat.”
On 3 May,Reutersreported that “India’s western state of Maharashtra has registered 25 deaths from heat stroke since late March, the highest toll in the past five years”.
Similarly, on April 29,Gulf Newsreported that “Pakistan’s climate change ministry issued a heatwave alert in all provinces and advised people and authorities to take precautionary measures”.
Down To Earthreported on heat’s impact on mental health in the central Indian state of Jharkhand that “has recorded 11 heatwave days this year”. The story quoted Dr Basudeb Das from the Central Institute of Psychiatry (CIP) in Ranchi, who said:
“一个标准差的温度增加勒ads to a [4%] increase in interpersonal violence and 14% increase in group violence. High-risk behaviours also increase during heat waves. Evidence has shown that having a pre-existing psychiatric illness can triple the risk of death during a heatwave.”
Meanwhile, theConversationreported on the working hours lost due to the heat. “It’s become impossible to work after 10 o’clock in the morning,” Sunil Das – a rickshaw puller in Noida on the outskirts of Delhi – toldQuartz. The piece continued:
“The searing heat has forced outdoor workers like Das to change their working hours. ‘I head back home after 10 and resume in the evening when the heat has subsided a bit,’ Das said. ‘It has reduced my earnings, but what alternative do I have?’”
In the eastern state of Odisha, people set up stalls at prominent public places to offer water to passersby,Reutersreported. The Odisha state government announced the closure of Anganwadi centres, colleges and universities for five days from 27 April, according toTimes Now.
Elsewhere, the Bengal government advised all state primary schools to shift school hours to the morning to avoid the heat, theTimes of Indiareported.
On 12 May, India’seducation ministryissued guidelines for schools to combat the ill effects of the ongoing heatwave,teleSURreported, urging schools to “reduce hours, relax uniform norms and restrict outdoor activities”.
一个s millions turned to air conditioning to keep cool, India’s electricity demand touched a record high in April,Reutersreported.
Manufacturers posted record growth sales of residential air conditioning units for April, according toBusiness Standard. In addition, theEconomic Times of Indiareported that manufacturers of air conditioners and refrigerators increased their production from60-70% capacity to full capacity. However, theHinduadded that increased demand for air conditioning units may also lead to shortages and price increases.Timereported that “what AC units are running are belching hot air into streets, worsening the urban heat island effect” and that “environmentalists are calling for a fundamental rethink of how India builds its cities”.
Meanwhile, theFinancial Timesreported that rising demand for air conditioning was “worsening a critical shortage of the coal that is used to generate power for New Delhi and other nearby cities”. This triggered “the worst power crisis in more than six years”, saidReuters.
TheDaily Telegraphreported that authorities in Delhi warned on 28 April that the city would see power cuts across essential services over the weekend, including in hospitals and on its metro trains, due to record levels of residential power demand.
That day,Bloombergreported that India had cancelled some passenger trains to allow the faster movement of coal to power plants. “Coal reserves at India’s power plants have declined almost 17% since the start of this month and are barely a third of the required levels,” the outlet said.
On 4 May, theFinancial Timesreported that India has plans to boost coal production to “record highs” in response to the power crunch. Meanwhile,Bloombergalso reported that states including Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh were forced to implement eight-hour blackouts.
The Economist reported that the “shortage has even reached posh parts of Delhi, whose pampered residents are usually insulated from many of the discomforts suffered by their compatriots”.BBC Newsreported that a survey of more than 21,000 people in 322 districts found that “two in three households said they were facing power outages”. Energy and natural resources expert Dr Rahul Tongia told the outlet that “it is not that India is running out of coal in an absolute sense. We are essentially facing a stockpile problem, and it is not new”.
In Jammu and Kashmir, “unscheduled and prolonged power cuts during [Ramadan] have left citizens distraught”, noted theHindustan Times. And India’sEconomic Timesreported on power cuts of up to 12 hours in Pakistan to reduce stress on the national power system.
On 6 May, the Indian government invoked emergency “national interest” powers in the country’sElectricity Act, orderingall imported-coal based power plants to run in spite of high imported coal prices of $140 per tonne, theEconomic Timesreported. The move, said the story, would help kick-start non-operational units of Tata Power and Adani Power’s imported coal plants.
On 10 May, theEconomic Timesreported that the shortage is pushing companies to buy stranded coal plants whose firms are facing bankruptcy proceedings.
In an interviewwith the paper on 12 May, India’s power minister said:
“Our per capita emissions are one-third of the world average, we don’t have to take any action as far as reduction of emissions is concerned. if you are asking me to compromise with the availability of power for my growth, sorry.”
On 11 May,Reutersreported that India has allowed coal mines to step up production by up to 50% without seeking feedback from locals or having to assess new impacts.
一个ccording to the latestgovernment press release,power minister wrote letters to the states of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka and West Bengal to “express concern” that their generation companies had “either not started or not completed” the process for importing coal. He asked that they “take immediate steps to import coal to meet their requirement during Monsoon season.”
TheHindustan Timesadded: “In Jammu and Kashmir, unscheduled and prolonged power cuts during [Ramadan] have left citizens distraught.” Meanwhile, theEconomic Timesof India reported power cuts of up to 12 hours in Pakistan to reduce stress on the national power system.
On 2 May, theIn Pakistan, theNews Internationalreported on 2 May报道称,走访受灾最严重的居民讷瓦布沙阿的年代indh were facing unannounced hours-long power outages. Due to high fuel costs, citizens were unable to use generators for domestic power production, the paper added.
“The sweltering heat and unannounced power cuts during the month of Ramadan made the almost 15-hour fasting even more challenging…The power shortfall reached 7,468MW, resulting in long hours of about 6 to 18 hours of power outages a day in several regions of rural and urban Pakistan,” according toGulf News.
The paper added that the country’s power division has injected an additional 2,500MW of electricity into the power system in an effort to end the power cuts.
一个combination of extreme temperatures and hot, dry winds across north-Indian planes also “caused scores of unusual farm fires in food-bowl states over the past two weeks, destroying swathes of harvest-ready wheat crops in at least four”, according to a separate report by theHindustan Times.
We are receiving a lot of reports on#FireOutbreak (In Standing Wheat Crops) from various parts of#Haryanadue to Strong winds in the state, spreading very quickly.— Weatherman Navdeep Dahiya (@navdeepdahiya55)一个pril 25, 2022
This video of massive crop fires from Bithmada (#Hisar).@cmohry@dcmohry@ndmaindiafarmers need help!
TheFinancial Expresssaid that wheat outputs will be at least 10% below initial estimates.
一个nd theStatesmanadded that the Punjab government sought to relax rules on the “normal appearance of grain”, in view of the “shrivelled” grains that were being harvested.
Meanwhile,Reutersreported in early May that, due to the heat, “India’s wheat output looks likely to fall in 2022 after five consecutive years of record harvests”. TheGuardianadded that water shortages also affected farmers, forcing them to “use water sparingly”.
Similarly,Gulf Newsreports that “Pakistani farmers face the dual threat of enduring severe hot conditions on the job and heatwaves affecting the quality of crops”.
On 4 May,Bloombergreported that the Indian government is now “considering limiting wheat exports” to safeguard domestic supplies.
一个nd gases emitted by a landfill site at Bhalswa in Delhi spontaneously combusted on 26 April – emitting “a thick layer of toxic smog across the city”, according to theDaily Telegraph.
In a piece entitled, “Delhi is a blazing hot, smoke-filled hellscape”,Quartzreported that the fumes “worsened Delhi’s air quality, already among the worst in the world”.
Meanwhile, as the waters warmed, fisheries began to see smaller yields – reducing profits for Mumbai’s 40,000 fish sellers,Reutersreported.
一个round seven million people are currently at risk of flash flooding from rapidly melting glaciers, reportedReuters. The government of Pakistan told provincial disaster management authorities to prepare urgently for the risk of flash flooding in northern mountainous provinces.
On 7 May, the “historic” Hassanabad bridge in northen Pakistan’s Gilgit-Baltistan region was washed away by floods after the Shishper glacier “reportedly started melting due to the heat”, theIndependentreported.
The glacial floods left “thousands of locals and tourists” travelling on the Karakoram highway stranded and reportedly “swept away two hydropower projects, submerged houses, agricultural land and water supply channels”.
TheInternational Centre for Integrated Mountain Development(ICIMOD) told theExpress Tribunethat in the past 20 days, water volume increased by 40% in the Shisper glacier lake, “mainly triggered” by “abrupt temperature rise in the northern areas”.
“我们能够把家庭和人,但this is showing us how real and dangerous climate stress is for Pakistan, it’s quite literally here and now,” Pakistan’s newly appointed federal minister for climate change Sherry Rahman told the BBC World ServiceNewshourradio programme:
“The sad part of the story is that we are one of the lowest emitters in the world, and yet we are experiencing the ravages of an almost existential shift in climate patterns and are a living example of all the crises that can erupt.”
Commenting on the incident, aTimes of Indiacolumnist wrote that “mindless construction would have disastrous consequences in this ecologically fragile area”, saying that the Karakoram highway that connects to China “is being converted into an economic corridor…which would involve” upgrading it into an all-weather expressway along with the “laying of oil and gas pipelines”.
Last month, theHindustan Timesreported that India’s environment ministry sought to exempt “sensitive” highway projects in its border regions from seeking an environment clearance.”
Finally, around seven million people are currently at risk of flash flooding from the rapidly melting glaciers – and the government of Pakistan told provincial disaster management authorities to prepare urgently for the risk of flash-flooding in northern mountainous provinces, according to a separateReutersstory.
Extreme heat grips#Indiaand#Pakistan@indiametdept: temperatures on 27 April were 43-45°C, will rise in next 2 days@pmdgov: Temperatures in parts of#Pakistanare 5-7°C above normal.— World Meteorological Organization (@WMO)一个pril 28, 2022
Rapidly melting snow and ice risks triggering glacier lake outburst floods#ClimateChangepic.twitter.com/MZBceD9ati
The IMD defines four climatological seasons, with the “pre-monsoon” summer season stretching from March to May and ending with the onset of the southwest monsoon in early June.
Summers in India “have always been gruelling”, according toBBC News– “especially in the northern and central regions”. The outlet noted that “heatwaves are common in India”, but that “summer began early this year” with the onset of heatwaves in March.
The season’s first heatwave was declared on 11 March, according toDown to Earth, an Indian environmental publication.
Dr Naresh Kumar, a senior scientist at the IMD, told BBC News that the current heatwave is attributable to “local atmospheric factors”, such as persistent anticyclones and weaker-than-usual “western disturbances” – storms that originate in the Mediterranean and bring rainfall to India.
TheWashington Postexplained that “a dome-like ‘ridge’” of high pressure in the atmosphere “eradicates cloud cover and deflects storm systems to the north…allow[ing] sunshine to pour in unobstructed, heating the antecedent dry air”. (A similar mechanism was at play duringlast year’s “heat dome” eventthat baked the Pacific north-west region of the US and Canada.)
Delhi “failed to see a single rainy day” in March, following a record-wet January and an abnormally wet February, theHindustan Timesreported. It added that only “weak and feeble” western disturbances made their way across the country’s northern plains. It added:
“Not only did these [western disturbances] fail to bring rainfall, but sufficient cloud cover, too – one that can provide a slight cooling effect.”
TheNew Scientistreported that this heatwave is “notable” because the world is currently in aLa Niña state, which, it explained, “usually has a cooling effect globally”. It pointed out that the previous records, set in 2010, occurred during an El Niño year, when global temperatures tend to be boosted.
一个xioscalled the heatwave a “climate change-fueled event”, noting that studies have demonstrated “clear causal links” between heatwave intensity and climate change.
(There is astrong consensusamong climate scientists that heatwaves, in general, are worsening due to climate change.)
TheIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’sSixth Assessment Report(AR6), released last August, concluded that it isvirtually certainthat “the frequency and intensity of hot extremes (including heatwaves) have increased and those of cold extremes have decreased on the global scale from 1950”.
一个s亚慱官网reported at the time, the AR6 report also said that “dangerous heat stress thresholds will be crossed more often across much of Asia – especially in the south”.
In anews release,World Meteorological Organizationwrote that “it is premature to attribute the extreme heat in India and Pakistan solely to climate change”. However, the statement continued, the heatwave is “consistent with what we expect in a changing climate”.
热浪已经超出“典型的热点ts” in India’s northwest and southeast to “regions that aren’t used to seeing so much extreme heat”, according to theMIT Technology Review. The article quotedUniversity of California, Irvineclimate researcherProf Amir AghaKouchak,他说:“这是一个更广泛的气候变化的一部分signal”.
一个ghaKouchak also told the outlet that there is “very high confidence” in the role of climate change in worsening heatwaves.
Dr Friederike Otto, a climate scientist atImperial College London’sGrantham Institute for Climate Change,tweetedthat researchers are “still working on answering how large the role of climate change in the ongoing heatwave in South Asia is”.
We’re still working on answering how large the role of climate change in the ongoing heatwave in South Asia is, but here is how the results will be useful beyond assessing current impacts & inform adaptation to extreme heat.https://t.co/QTS0QPlY6Xpic.twitter.com/epCXxz7q55— Dr Friederike Otto (@FrediOtto)May 2, 2022
Otto and several colleagues published an essay in the journalClimatic Changethis week, in which they wrote that “whether today’s most impactful heatwaves could have occurred in a pre-industrial climate…is fast becoming an obsolete question”.
Instead, they argued, attribution science should turn its focus to “inform adaptation decision-making in the face of unprecedented future heat”.
Writing in theHindustan Times, former secretary of India’s ministry of Earth sciences Dr M Rajeevan Nair pointed out that “unless we do an in-depth attribution study, it is tough to attribute a heatwave event to human influence, [but] [r]ecent heatwaves in March and April in north India are in line with IPCC’s projections”.
Meanwhile, a rapid attribution analysis by the UK Met Office has found that the chances of a record-breaking heatwave in north-west India and Pakistan has been made “100 times more likely” because of climate change, reportedBBC News. The analysis focused on April and May in 2010, which saw the highest combined average April and May temperature since 1900. According to the findings, a heatwave exceeding “such extreme temperatures would occur only once every 312 years” without human-caused warming, but are now expected once every three years in the current climate.
一个nd “by the end of the century, increasing climate change is likely to drive temperatures of these values on average every year”, said Dr Nikos Christidis, who produced the study, in apress release.
While the rapid study itself has not been peer-reviewed, the methods underpinning it have been, the Met Office’s press team clarified to Carbon Brief:
“Using this process we are able to develop quick results, but we don’t produce a scientific paper for each time we invoke the system as the process itself is subject to peer review.”
What has the media response been in India and internationally?
一个ccording to theUniversity of Colorado’sMedia and Climate Change Observatory– which monitors 126 news sources across print, radio and TV in 58 countries – coverage of global warming and climate change by Indian print media sources increased 22% from February to March.
Carbon Brief analysed newspaper frontpages in March and April and found that the Indian print media’s response in South Asia to the heatwave was initially muted, picking up significantly in late April as impacts gained more attention worldwide and nationally.
It’s not even dominating the news in India, by the looks of it.https://t.co/drwtEuChXg— Aruna Chandrasekhar (@aruna_sekhar)一个pril 26, 2022
一个s of 26 April, the country’smost-readEnglish language daily, theTimes of India, had not featured the heatwave on its frontpage. (Instead,Elon Musk’s acquisition of TwitterandGautam Adani’s ascent to the world’s fifth richest personwere the leading stories.) Neither had the Hindu, which has a significant readership in southern India.
The Times of India later did put extreme heat on the frontpage of its Delhi edition on April 29, when temperatures touched 46C in the country’s capital.
The story featured alongside another article on a call from the Delhi authorities to central government “asking it to arrange for adequate coal supply” to keep the city’s metro services and hospitals going, amid six-hour power outages in its satellite-city, Gurgaon.
#ClimateCrisisrarely makes to the front page.Maybe when#IPCCreports come out. Today@TOIDelhitalks of#Delhi#heatwaveinIndia&peak power demand all together. India’s met demand was 204GW yest’day.@ClimateAdaptis necessary,but so is@mitigation.How can anyone adapt to 46C?pic.twitter.com/ulwTMw1Q4M— Aarti Khosla (@a_khosla)一个pril 29, 2022
The same day, the Hindustan Times put India’s heatwave at the front and centre of its coverage as a “special spread”.
With large parts of India in the throes of record April temperatures, today’s HT rightly reads like a Heatwave Special Edition. Let’s take it from Page 1.@jayashreenandiwrites that an “anti-cyclone”, bringing in hot winds, is behind the soaring temperatures.— Saurya Sengupta (@sauryasengupta)一个pril 29, 2022
一个dditionally, the paper’s Delhi edition carried astoryon how “the number of fire-related calls to the Delhi Fire Services (DFS) in April so far is over 26% more than the same period last year”.
Digital news outlets covered the heatwave extensively, bringing to light its lesser reported aspects.
For example,Mongabayreported on how “searing heat has forced outdoor workers to change their working hours…a month before the weather bureau officially recognises the hot season”.
一个nd theBastionreported on why reported heatwave deaths were “just the tip of the iceberg”, counting for only “about 10% of the actual heat-related deaths”.
Several outlets, including theWire Science,Vice Newsand一个l Jazeerahighlighted the importance of wet-bulb temperatures – “a metric that accounts for both heat and humidity” and “can perhaps most intuitively be thought of as a representation of how effectively a person sheds heat by sweating”.
The Wire described the metric as “one that connects directly to human biology, public health and governance in the era of the climate crisis”. It pointed toa studythat found that “the maximum wet-bulb temperatures in parts of southeastern India and southeast Asia have already approached or crossed the 35C threshold”.
“For coastal cities, the IMD should also publish the ‘wet bulb’ temperature during heat waves in other parts of the country. When humidity is high, a temperature of 37C can feel like 40C to the human body. You can drink a lot of water, which will prevent dehydration, but it won’t actually cool you down.”
While news coverage picked up, comment on the crisis was thin in most English-language Indian news outlets.
Jayashree Nandi, chief environment and climate correspondent at theHindustan Times, wrote that “as temperatures rise, schools must make climate action plans”, since “for many children, school is the only escape from heat stress”.
She also urged schools to be “built or retrofitted to keep the thermal comfort of children in mind and make their commute easier” – and that “governments need to keep another issue in sight: that 1.5C breach in global warming is now imminent”.
Meanwhile, an editorial in the Hindustan Times on 12 April said that “a robust public health policy response to extreme heat events must include early warning systems, effective outreach strategies to improve community awareness, and tailored measures to reach vulnerable populations…in consultation with local communities”.
It added that “climate resilience is, in part, about asking people to think differently and see extreme heat and other climate challenges as solvable public health issues”.
一个n article inBloombergargued that “for India, the world’s poorest super-emitter, adapting to a hotter Earth is as urgent a task as cutting planet-warming emissions”.
It quoted Indian climate scientistDr Roxy Mathew Koll, who said “we have looked at data for 70 years…the number of heatwaves is directly in response to global warming”. He called for “higher resolution data and, more importantly, long-term policies.”
In a separate opinion piece,BloombergcolumnistsDavid FicklingandRuth Pollardsaid the heatwave is “a taste of things to come as global warming push[es] India and its neighbours to levels where climate is a core threat to health”. They added that “the [Indian] government hasn’t declared a national disaster and rolled out an appropriate response will come as no surprise to those who lived through the nation’s deadly Covid-19 epidemic”.
InClimate Home News, Sapna Verma observed that “the richest 10% of Indians have smaller carbon footprints than citizens in developed countries, which bear the biggestresponsibilityfor the situation we find ourselves in”.
While “many of the options to make the heat more tolerable involve either somebody else’s sweat or burning more fossil fuels”, she says, “there is no other way to tackle this but to join hands – rich and poor – because when climate impacts intensify, the ones with more resources won’t escape either”.
Commenting on India’s coal crunch in theIndian Express, Shalu Agrawal and Karthik Ganesan from climate thinktankCouncil on Energy, Environment and Water (CEEW)urged authorities to “shock-proof India’s power sector”, given that “increasing climatic and geopolitical uncertainties underscore the need to become more efficient in the way we generate, distribute and consume energy”.
“You can only adapt so much. This heatwave is testing the limits of human survivability.”https://t.co/VYM1MA9TF7— Greta Thunberg (@GretaThunberg)May 3, 2022
Writing inMint, climate columnist Bibek Bhattacharya pointed out that “there isn’t much climate change denial in India…the problem is forgetfulness” and that “given India’s unique position with regards to climate threats, this is all the more galling”.
一个2019studyon climate change reporting in the English-language print media in India between 2010 and 2017 found that “only 0.5% of the articles present sceptical views and 2.6% of the articles explicitly discredit climate scepticism”.
Writing in theDeccan Herald, ecologistDr Harini Nagendra– who leads一个zim Premji University’s center for climate change and sustainability – called for “long vision planning to help wean Bengaluru off unnecessary fossil fuel use, finding alternate paths to our energy security without compromising our wellbeing”. She said that “at this point, and in the weeks, months and years to follow, we, the people, need to put unceasing pressure on our governments, policymakers, community representatives – and ultimately on ourselves”.
Meanwhile in Pakistan,Dawncolumnist Peerzada Salman wrote that “Pakistanis in general have yet to make [climate change] a subject worth mulling over – they have other topics to thrash out”, one being the country’s latest political crisis.
He called on authorities “to make citizens’ lives less challenging” in “the last week of the holy month of [Ramadan] when most of them are fasting”, concluding that “no government deserves to be called a government unless it contains, and shows, compassion for the people it’s been elected to govern”.
Elsewhere, BBC News received criticism on Twitter for using pictures of “kids playing” forone of its storieson the heatwave, prompting it to change the image.
Vulnerable people are dying. Crops are failing. The headline explains the devastating scale.— Dr Adam Levy (@ClimateAdam)一个pril 29, 2022
一个nd the picture?? Kids playing. Ffs.pic.twitter.com/zWWtpJ0pgc
On Indian TV news, discussions over the use of loudspeakers by mosques during Ramadan rather than heatwaves dominated the top debates on some of the most widely-watched English and Hindi television channels, saidManisha Pande, executive editor of the digital media-monitoring platformNewsLaundryand host ofTV Newsance, a show that analyses mainstream Indian television news.
一个ccording to her research, “most of the debates on primetime television over the last month [during Ramadan] have been on religion: the use of loudspeakers, processions taken out for Hindu versus Muslim festivals”, while the most-watched Hindi channelTV9“has only been talking about Ukraine and Russia”.
NDTVwas one of the few Indian news channels that covered the heatwave and its climate links on its“Left, Right and Centre”show on 29 April with IPCC authorsProf Krishna AchutaRaoandProf Navroz Dubash.Dubash remarked that “extreme weather events are consistent with what science is predicting, what we are seeing now is the first manifestation of climate change – not a future issue, but a here and now issue”.
While there is some research on how Indian newspapers cover climate change, there is little on the country’s TV coverage. This is despite the fact that newspaper readership is “on a slow decline while TV news is growing its already wide base”, according to theIndian Readership Survey’slast update.
While Pande thinks newspapers have done a fairly good job of reporting India’s heatwave, she said the “sustained focus on climate change is completely missing” from Indian television news channels “that operate out of the world’s most polluted capital city”. She noted that the coal shortage did make it to primetime debates, but turned into a “[he said, she said] political slugfest”. She told Carbon Brief:
“Most mainstream Indian TV coverage is driven by events and sensationalised headlines, never any focus on climate change. For heat, it’s a weather-related news update and not climate-related. I was just looking at our research for this week and it has headlines like ‘sadak pepapadbhi sek sakte hai’ [you can roast your poppadoms on the street now]. But if we’ve had the hottest month in 122 years, even if you want to sensationalise it, it should’ve been a primetime bulletin.
“It’s not just climate: unemployment, price rise, these issues don’t make it, so climate is a huge expectation. These [TV] guys inhabit a parallel universe.”
Her thoughts were echoed by young Indian climate activistDisha Ravi, who told Carbon Brief:
“Coverage around heatwaves made it mainly into a weather issue. The ones that highlighted climate change hardly touched on the causes or preventive measures. It also felt more like an FYI [for your information], instead of holding authorities accountable, which was disappointing and alarming.”
更新:本文在18/05/2022更新add the latest developments around the heatwave, including the findings of the Met Office rapid attribution analysis.
Media reaction: South Asia’s 2022 heatwave and the role of climate change