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一系列电力塔,来自SiadeWell A和B核电站的距离。 信用:迈克p牧羊犬/ alamy股票照片。
英国政策
16.December 202016:55

深入问答:英国的“能源白皮书”如何旨在解决气候变化?

Josh Gabbatiss.

Josh Gabbatiss.

12。16..20
Josh Gabbatiss.

Josh Gabbatiss.

16..12。20.20|4:55pm
英国政策 深入问答:英国的“能源白皮书”如何旨在解决气候变化?

经过几个月的延误,英国政府已经启动了一个white paper制定政府为能源部门的议程及其在解决气候变化方面的作用。

这个document, which is the first of its kind for1三years,comes as the nation attempts to recover from the Covid-19 pandemic and set a course for net-zero emissions by 2050.

Many of the big announcements were first revealed in the prime minister Boris Johnson’s recent10点计划,为政府的气候战略奠定了基础。

然而,期待已久的能量白皮书为网络零目标设定了更广泛的阶段,并标志着将在明年晚些时候在举办COP26气候峰会之前发挥众多磋商和战略的关键时期的较宽阶段。

尽管白皮书中有大量的额外细节,但拟议的减排与英国气候目标要求的减排之间仍有很大差距。

In this Q&A, Carbon Brief addresses the big questions arising from the white paper and places it into the wider context of the UK’s effort to address climate change.

Does the energy white paper set the UK on a course for net-zero?

这个last time the government released an energy white paper was in 2007. Tony Blair was prime minister and the UK was still a year away from implementing the landmarkClimate Change Act这将在2050年立法将排放量减少80%。

A lot has changed in the intervening years – and this is very evident from some of the language used in2007年的论文.

除此之外,这份文件还包含了一整节关于“清洁煤”的内容,并表示“在未来几十年,化石燃料将继续是主要的能源来源”。它的目标是到2020年电网中可再生能源的比例达到20%。

如今,英国超过三分之一的发电量来自可再生能源,而今年英国的发电量下降了67天不使用燃煤电力。2007年白皮书的2020年估计数和今天的现实之间的差异可以在下面看到。

2007年电能白皮书的燃料源对2020年的燃料来源估算了2020年的燃料来源
Estimate for power generation in the UK by fuel source, terawatt hours (TWh), from the 2007 energy white paper for 2020 (red) compared to figures for 2019 (blue), which is the most recent year for which data is available. The figures from the 2007 energy white paper are based on the “central policy estimate”. Source:2007年能量白皮书(存档),BEIS能源趋势,BM报告and亚慱官网yabo亚博体育app下载分析。通过碳简短使用图表亚慱官网海图.

这个new white paper was第一次宣布了in 2018 by the then-business secretary Greg Clark. Since then, the UK has significantly ramped up its climate ambition with its净零目标去年套装。

This ambition is reflected in the new document, which is titled “powering our net-zero future” and repeatedly describes the UK as a “world leader” in various areas of climate and energy policy.

Across the paper’s 165 pages it lays out a plan that the government says will “transform energy”, provide people with a “fair deal” and drive a “green recovery” while supporting up to 220,000 jobs over the next decade.

Business secretary Alok Sharmadescribed本文作为“远离我们对化石燃料的依赖性的决定性和永久性的转变,朝向清洁能源来源”。

Prof Rebecca Willis,一位能源和气候治理研究员兰卡斯特大学,讲碳简短白皮书亚慱官网是关于未来任务的“不太自满”的证据:

“这是一份与10年前甚至5年前的白皮书截然不同的能源白皮书。我认为,对净零目标的承诺贯穿始终……我认为,现在人们对必须完成的工作有了更多的认识。”

因为 ”滴灌” of energy and climate policy in recent months, including the prime minister’s recent “10点计划“,大多数大型政策公告已经报告。

这些包括在2030年到2030年出售新的汽油和柴油车的终结,支持额外的40千兆瓦(40GW)的新海上风,为家庭能源改进提供资金3亿英镑。

Much further detail is expected in the coming months as various sector-specific strategies and consultations emerge, as well as plans for the sixth carbon budget, which government advisers at the Climate Change Committee (CCC) advised on last week. (See Carbon Brief’s in-depth概括.)这个re will also be an overarching net-zero strategy.

But, as it stands, there is a “policy gap” between what the government has announced and where it needs its emissions trajectory to be heading. While the UK is on course to hit its third “碳预算“在2022年结束,未来两项五年预算不在轨道上,或2050年净零目标。

政府表示,其10分计划中的措施将在2032年第五碳预算结束时削减180万吨二氧化碳当量(MTCO2E)。碳简介亚慱官网估计的这将占实现即将到来的预算的差距的55%。

核算新白皮书中的政策,政府增加了估计到230MTCO2,加上“交通等其他部门的进一步节省”。

This would bring the government closer to delivering its upcoming budgets, but would still leave a gap of 101MtCO2e, as the chart below shows. This does not take into consideration the longer term net-zero target which will require more substantial cuts.

Volume of emissions cuts expected from government plans laid out in the 10-point plan and energy white paper up to 2032 when the fifth carbon budget ends
到2032年第五次碳预算结束时,10点计划和能源白皮书(蓝条)中列出的政府计划预计的减排量。虚线显示了当前政府排放预测与第四和第五次碳预算之间排放“差距”的大小。资料来源:2019年Beis能源和排放预测,UK’s 10-point plan,energy white paper.通过碳简短使用图表亚慱官网海图.

在白皮书中,政府国家:

“我们认识到,更多需要完成,以满足净零的关键里程碑,包括我们为明年设定的碳预算6的野心,考虑到气候变化委员会的最新建议。”

In an文章在白皮书发布后发布,乔纳森博士乔纳森马歇尔博士,分析负责人yabo亚博体育app下载能源和气候情报单位(ECIU)表示,白皮书“不缺乏决定,隐含和明确”,其整体主题是“净零点的显着进展”。

他还说,该部门的业务和产业战略(Beis)是“几乎绝对肯定的卖空”,其排放削减,因为它们是“基于目标的存在,少数政策来递送它们”。

马歇尔指出,最近的建模Cambridge Econometrics发现,由于政府模型承担了较慢的清洁技术,单独将超过420mtco2e节省超过420mtco2e。(但是,这分析yabo亚博体育app下载注意到了吗that the plan still did not align with the UK’s net zero goal.)

由于政府在未来几个月内粘合出一些政策的目标,因此可能会增加排放量的估计值。

What are the UK’s plans for a post-Brexit emissions trading system?

白皮书中最重要的新公告之一是确认英国将于1月1日从1月1日起取代当前的排放交易计划(UK ETS)以取代当前欧盟ETS.

This is significant given the looming end of the Brexit transition period and the resulting uncertainty about how – or even whether – the UK exits the EU ETS.

ETS涉及高发射演员,例如发电厂,重工和国内航空公司,分配了一定程度的信贷,以发出温室气体,然后被迫购买更多,如果他们越过他们的门槛,就被迫购买。

Previously there was some debate around whether the UK would directly replace the existing system or instead implement a碳税,财政部倾向于后者,而财政部倾向于前者。

这个government is promoting its new system as “the world’s first net zero carbon cap and trade market”. From day one, it says the cap on emissions allowed will be reduced by 5% compared to the EU system.

它还表示,已经实施了该系统,它将“在适当的课程上咨询如何将帽与适当的净零轨迹对齐”,并计划探索将ETS扩展到它不覆盖的三分之二的排放。

规定对英国资产,包括emi上限ssions each year up to 2030, have已经发表了在未来的日子里,预计会有更多细节。

这个国际排放交易协会(IETA) has welcomed the plan, which its EU policy director Adam Berman saying it would “ensure both flexibility for industry and environmental certainty for policymakers”.

Energy-supply-electricity-sub-station-near-Cambuslang-pylons-supplying-electricity-to-the-central-belt-of-Scotland
Cambuslang Perons附近的能量供应电子站供电到苏格兰的中央带。信用:南西图片苏格兰/ alamy股票照片。

然而,担心英国ETS只宣布两周内的意思是生效,这是政府承诺的世界领先的计划。

In mid-November, after energy minister Kwasi Kwarteng was questioned by the BEIS committee about the UK’s future carbon pricing regime, the committeeadmonished他因未来方案缺乏清晰度。

Caroline Kuzemko教授,谁专门从事可持续能源转型的政治经济华威大学,讲述碳简介,宣亚慱官网布包含了很多“咆哮”:

“这是宣布某些东西的一件事,这是它实际起作用的另一件事......没有其他国家已经设法在几周内有一个排放交易计划 - 需要数年。”

She adds that a key concern is the lack of international linkage, which is widely seen as necessary for the system to be effective in tackling emissions.

它必须在国际上挂钩,因为它只是太小的煎炸,真正有意义上所涉及的公司,“Kuzemko告诉碳简短。亚慱官网

在宣布之前,谈到英国的谈话,即与欧盟制度直接相关的ETS。ieta的贝尔曼told《能源监测报》11月称,“每个人都希望有一个联网的ETS”。

While this is no longer going ahead, the government says it is “open to linking the UK ETS internationally…but no decision on our preferred linking partners has yet been made”. Despite this vagueness, the EU seems to be the most likely and, perhaps, only viable partner.

气候认为Ember,这一直倡导碳税,警告仅英国的计划可能导致“功能失调的气候政策”。

菲尔麦克唐纳,an analyst at Ember, tells Carbon Brief that, even if it were 5% lower, the UK’s cap would be “very much higher than emissions”, resulting in a large surplus and the risk of low prices.

If this were to happen, Ember warns that英国风险making the same mistakes as the EU ETS in its first decade of operation, when its price was set too low rendering it “environmentally meaningless”.

英国会建造更多的核能吗?

Another big announcement – and one that has attracted the大多数头条新闻- 政府是否有意将其“在本议会结束时将至少一个大规模核带到最终投资决定”。

While it does not mention it by name, the white paper’s release was accompanied by the news that ministers willenter negotiations用法国能源公司EDF在Siadewell C核电站上的萨福克海岸。

围绕大号班达20亿英镑的新设施的建设,已经有了长期运行的辩论和充足的争议,as with other拟议英国核基础设施。

这个discussion largely hinges on how to fund such developments. The only nuclear power plant currently under construction, Hinkley Point C in Somerset,是期待to run £2.9bn over budget. The white paper notes that “raising enough private capital to finance a nuclear power station is challenging”.

这个-base-for-the-first-reactor-at-Hinkley-Point-C-power-station-near-Bridgewater-Somerset
萨默塞特附近的Hinkley Point C Power Station的第一反应器的基础。信用:pa图像/ alamy股票照片。

Nevertheless, the government has repeatedly made it clear that it does plan to develop more nuclear power, most recently in its国家基础设施战略.

In the white paper, the government says that, with most of the UK’s nuclear fleet retiring over the next decade, “our analysis suggests additional nuclear beyond Hinkley Point C will be needed in a low-cost 2050 electricity system of very low emissions”.

A government consultation last year得出结论that additional new nuclear would be “required” to meet the net-zero goal. However, the National Infrastructure Commision建议在2025年之前,不得超过一家新的核电站。

Prof Robert Gross,英国能源研究中心主任告诉Carbon Brief,很难说英国是否“需要”新的核能:亚慱官网

“It is possible to make a range of assumptions about future costs of technology X or technology Y and run a model of the power system to tell you which is ‘best’. The problem is that these assumptions usually turn out to be wrong.”

在实践中,他说,询问政府如何“充分利用竞争机制来提供净零至少成本”并确保“最大透明度”,如果它追求一个重大的新核项目,这更有用。

为了支持其计划,政府表示,“继续探索一系列新核与开发商的融资选择”。

这个se include using public money “provided there is clear value for money for consumers and taxpayers”, as well as exploring a new funding model known as监管资产基础(RAB).

RAB模型一直是大量媒体覆盖的主题。这个Financial Times将其描述为一种机制,“可以看到consumers charged years before it has started generating electricity”, which has “attracted fierce criticism from opponents of nuclear power as it could leave energy bill payers on the hook for cost overruns”.

在与白皮书一起发布的各种文件中是一个咨询outcomeon RAB, which it says showed support from industry as well as from members of the public “who were not in principle opposed to nuclear”.

应对咨询的环境团体表示,RAB可能会对可再生能源提供核的优惠待遇。

Rab有效地将私营部门的一些建筑风险转移到消费者,并且可以降低资本成本,从而降低该发电机的电力价格。总讲碳简介:亚慱官网

“那么这个问题是是否正确执行此操作。如果可以在国家利益条件下制定明确的案件,那么这样做是合法的。这是在能源市场中的一个非常重要的干预,需要提供明确的理由,以提供特定技术特殊地位。“

另外,白皮书说,英国“继续是核技术发展的领导者”,而且reiteratesa £385m funding commitment from the 10-point plan for “the next generation of nuclear technology”.

Finally, the paper also announces a strategy to build “a commercially viable fusion power plant by 2040”.

核fusion, which involves binding atomic nuclei to release large amounts of energy, is still a very early stage technology, despite having been researched for many decades.

2040个目标,首先出现在保守派中选举宣言去年,已经众所周知as overly ambitious and even a “幻想”.

可再生能源计划是什么?

At the heart of the energy white paper is a commitment to significantly scale up electrification.

This includes “an overwhelmingly decarbonised power system in the 2030s”.上周,气候变化委员会建议2035年进行脱碳,以帮助英国走上净零排放的道路。

电动车辆的开关和增加使用清洁功率用于加热平均需求预计将增加2050。

随着核电和煤炭植物离线,这将需要大量扩大低碳电源。作为“我们进一步抱负的信号”白皮书甚至宣布了一个咨询将煤珀淘汰日期从2025年开始,从2025年到2024年。

政府表示,它“没有针对2050年的特定一代混合,也不是建议这样做的”。

Nevertheless, it has concluded that a “low-cost, net zero consistent system is likely to be composed predominantly of wind and solar”, based on modelling of more than 700,000 unique scenarios. (BEIS has发布其电力系统分析的“建模方法”以及白皮书。)yabo亚博体育app下载

下面的图表显示了可再生能源,尤其是,将需要扩大,以满足2050年预期的需求增长。

与2050年的英国的两个说明性潜在电力混合相比,英国电力混合。

UK electricity mix today (top) compared to two illustrative potential electricity mixes for Great Britain in 2050. Source:BEIS analysis.

After a long periodof excludingonshore wind and solar from competing in the government’s差价合同(CFD)拍卖用于资助新的可再生项目,白皮书确认2021年后的下一次拍卖将对这两种技术开放。

Overall, the next CfD auction will aim to “deploy around 12GW of low-cost renewable generation”, on top of the 16GW of renewables supported by the system since its inception five years ago.

与此同时,政府已发出磋商,以建立CFDS应在长期发展的情况下,表明随着可再生能源的价格下降,将此系统脱离。

这个咨询document指出创建市场结构以实现没有政府干预的低碳技术的部署“具有明显的潜在福利”:

“Market forces can foster innovation that can’t be predicted and find solutions that reduce the overall cost of transitioning to a low-carbon power system for consumers.”

这个re havebeen suggestions允许这种市场势力发挥作出的可能会鼓励在英国移动到更加可再生的制度中,了解解决可再生能源可变性的技术。

Despite this potential benefit, Gross tells Carbon Brief it is right that the government is taking a “gradual approach” to moving away from CfDs:

“At the same time, we need to consider whether, ultimately, a different sort of energy market can be created that is better at combining the low-risk conditions that investors welcome in the CfDs – very important to keeping costs down – with doing more to ensure that renewables schemes can play a role in system balancing.”

政府还表示,它将支持“至少一个”碳捕获和储存(CCS)发电厂到2030年,提供灵活的能力,可以补充高水平的可再生能源。

It states it will introduce a business model based on the existing CfD framework to incentivise the use of CCS in power generation.

这个chart below shows a range of potential “low-cost, low-carbon generation mixes” for 2050 from the electricity modelling document released by BEIS to accompany the white paper. It indicates a sizable role for gas power plants with CCS in most scenarios.

低成本的低碳发电在不同的需求场景下混合,无论是含氢
“低成本,低碳”发电混合在不同的需求场景下,既与北北北部建模的氢气一样。酒吧表明每项技术提供的年代,Terawatt小时(TWH),以及在互连器的情况下,这是进口减去出口。条中的数字代表了Gigawatts(GW)的部署容量。每酒吧上面显示年度系统成本(2012年£BN 2012)。来源:BEIS analysis.

Some of the scenarios also include hydrogen to provide additional flexibility. The white paper itself says the government sees clean hydrogen and long-duration storage satisfying the “need for peaking capacity” and ensuring “security of supply at low cost” by 2050 (more on hydrogen in the下面部分).

Finally, the white paper announces the creation of a “ministerial delivery group” to work across departments and address any remaining barriers to renewable deployment.

政府如何看到电力系统变化?

政府承认,要实现净零电力系统,可能需要的不仅仅是建设大量的可再生能源。

这个white paper states that, as it becomes more decentralised, the “previously one-directional system is transforming into something more dynamic”.

它引用了电力系统的根本变化,因为它占间歇性可再生能源和消费者习惯发生变化的份额。

A-Mercedes-C350-Electric-Hybrid-you-a-home-confling-point
梅赛德斯C350电动混合动力器由家庭充电点充电。信誉:约翰库斯人/ alamy股票照片。

在它所立的情况下,能源市场涉及销售人员电力和天然气单位。

白皮书的大部分内容仍然集中在这一模式上,并将电费和煤气费保持在较低水平,第一章“消费者”的大部分内容都致力于此(事实上,白皮书中的一些新闻报道highlighted plans such as automatically switching customers to cheaper tariffs, rather than the broad focus of decarbonising energy.)

But the paper also acknowledges a potential shift in this model, with a reference to “assessing what market framework changes may be required” to drive the rollout of “tariffs and products that work for consumers and contribute to net-zero”.

利用当前模型,难以构建一个market对于需求响应 - 例如选择充电电动汽车时电源需求低 - 或使用自己的太阳能电池板的人员自供电。

“如果我们打算创造一个更敏感和平滑并减少需求的电力系统,我们将不得不以真正不同的方式销售能量,”威利斯讲碳简短。亚慱官网

来自政府能源白皮书的图形。
Graphic from the government’s energy white paper. Source:BEIS.

白皮书还讨论了智能技术的重要性以及它可以灵活的贡献。政府分析估计,“更聪明yabo亚博体育app下载,更灵活的系统可以在2050年到2050年储蓄高达120亿英镑”。

To manage the envisaged shift in the energy system, the paper states that the role of energy regulator Ofgem and the operators of electricity, gas and network operators “still largely reflect the model from 30 years ago and need to be updated”.

这个re is even a reference to the potential for “an entirely new body” to replace Ofgem as it plans for a net-zero future.

这是威利斯的东西previously proposed和同事一起,因为她讲碳简短:亚慱官网

“It’s an almost impossible job for Ofgem to be creating the future market at the same time as regulating the current one, not least because they talk to the incumbents all the time and those incumbents have, obviously, vested interests.”

What are the plans for homes, heating and hydrogen?

预计将从建筑物中储蓄的最大排放量的排放量储蓄,这是下面的图表。

Estimated emissions savings to 2032 from the energy white paper.

Estimated emissions savings to 2032 from the energy white paper. Source:BEIS analysis.

它说,到2030年代中期,“我们预计所有新安装的加热系统都是低碳或者是我们有信心的设备可以转换为清洁的燃料供应”。

Cutting emissions from heating is a considerable challenge and one to which the government says there is no single answer. It highlights electrically powered heat pumps, hydrogen, green gas and shared heat networks as potential options.

According to the white paper, with these alternatives in mind the government is also consulting on whether it is appropriate to end gas grid connections to new homes entirely from 2025, in favour of clean alternatives.

这个plan reiterates an ambitious goal from the 10-point plan to increase heat pump installation from 30,000 per year to 600,000 per year by 2028. There目前是谁26.m fossil fuel boilers in UK buildings.

它表示,政府将推出新的清洁热量赠款,以鼓励家庭从化石燃料加热切换到热泵,预计明年内容有详细信息。

这将建立在£作为政府“绿色复苏”计划的一部分,今年启动了30亿美元的“绿色家园”赠款,帮助支付包括热泵、隔热和太阳能电池板在内的家庭升级费用。

A survey因为环境审计委员会透露了许多业主利用绿色家园补助金的“糟糕经历”。委员会强调的问题之一是缺乏具备必要技能的商人。

空调 - 加热 - 户外热泵
Air conditioning – heating outdoor heat pumps. Credit: Christian Delbert / Alamy Stock Photo.

这个government hopes to address this shortfall with a new strategy for upskilling through the “green jobs taskforce”, which will mainly focus on “installers to retrofit existing buildings with energy efficiency and clean heat measures”.

它还发表了一个reportto accompany the white paper on heat pumps, which government energy policy adviser Dr Matthew Aylott显示政府目标“是可实现的,英国供应链有很大的机会”。

CCC建议在2030年通过每年安装超过1M热泵的目标,以实现英国的气候目标,但政府报告发现大多数制造商都认为这不认为这是“在实践中的实现”。

越来越多的需求的障碍包括燃气锅炉的主导地位“由英国房屋股票的历史上贫困能效应效率”,高电价与天然气相比,热泵的高成本和热泵安装的高度破坏性“。

根据一条来自理查德霍华德,Aurora的研究总监,问题仍然是说服人们从化石燃料切换到热泵。

Hydrogen is another pillar of the government’s efforts to decarbonise building heat, with a proposal for a pilot hydrogen-heated town before the end of the decade.

在整个能量Whiite纸上发现对氢的参考,反映其在一系列部门中应用的可能性。(亚慱官网碳简介最近发表了氢气应用的详细解释者。)

预计明年春季的政府预计会有完整的氢战略,但同时,白皮书重申以前的承诺,例如将氢的生产能力提升到2030英镑的净零氢基金的支持。

该报指出,英国“已经是研究使用氢气取暖的世界领先者”,但是many expertsdo not see hydrogen as playing an important role in heat due to its low efficiency compared to heat pumps.

Others point to the value in using existing gas infrastructure to distribute and use hydrogen, something the government appears to have in mind with its plan to consult on the role of “hydrogen-ready” boilers next year.

政府还强调对家庭能源效率的承诺,它表示它将很快扩大专门的热量和建筑物战略。

它说它会向其制定路线图future homes standard“尽快”以确保新房是“零碳准备”。超越绿色家园的格兰特,还有其他未来的承诺to improve the energy efficiency of homes and other buildings.

Prof Kuzemko tells Carbon Brief that compared to other European nations, such as Germany, the UK has not had enough of a consistent energy efficiency framework to cut emissions from buildings.

“Here, because energy efficiency policy has come and gone…companies have been in business and gone bankrupt,” she says.

白皮书的其他关键点是什么?

超出其标题声明和措施roll out renewables or decarbonise homes, the energy white paper contains other details about how the government wants the energy system to develop in the coming years.

这个re is a shorter “explainer” section on transport which reiterates the government’s旗舰公告about ending the sale of petrol and diesel vehicles by 2030, and spending billions on charging infrastructure and supporting car electrification.

但是,它指出,在净零的课程中设置英国运输系统的全部计划将来自2021年春季运输部门。

白皮书中提到的英国气候目标的其他要点包括:

  • Carbon capture and storage:这个government repeated its plans to create four carbon capture clusters by 2030, with carbon capture and storage (CCS) to be deployed at two clusters by the mid 2020s and two by 2030. This includes an investment of £1bn up to 2025 (this figure was最初提议由政府于2010年,后来被遗弃)。
  • 生物量:Describing biomass as “one of our most valuable tools for reaching net zero emissions”, the paper says, by 2022, the government will establish the role which bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (贝尔科斯)可以在减少碳排放方面发挥作用。
  • Industry:旨在通过2030和2040年的至少一个完全净零集群的四个低碳产业集群,在2021中具有工业脱碳策略。
  • 油和气extraction:白皮书包括一个计划,将英国的大陆架为“净零盆地到2050”,通过将19mtco2e的排放从19mtco2e切割至0.5mtco2e,具有“特殊焦点”甲烷。篇篇文章中,提到了在过渡到净零排放期间的“安全和有弹性和化石燃料供应”。
  • ‘North Sea transition deal’:这个government says it will establish a deal with the oil and gas industry during the first half of 2021 that will enable it to repurpose its existing infrastructure for new applications, such as CCS, hydrogen production and offshore wind, as well as securing “new low-carbon export opportunities in overseas markets”.
  • Interconnectors:与白皮书一起,一个单独报告into the impact of interconnectors on decarbonisation finds that more of these links could cut cumulative emissions in the island of Great Britain by up to 199MtCO2 by 2050, as well as cutting costs.
  • 储能:这个paper commits to legislating to define electricity storage in law, “removing another barrier to flexibility”.
  • 数字基础架构:这个re is a pledge to create “world-leading digital infrastructure for our energy system”, and publish the UK’s first energy data strategy in spring 2021, in partnership with Ofgem.
  • 碳含量:这个paper says the government will “ensure consumers are provided with more transparent and accurate information on carbon content when they are choosing their energy services and products”, with a consultation on reforms planned for next year.
  • 能源建模:政府承诺实施一个新的建模战略,将“提高透明度和合作”。

在整个白皮书中,政府参考了众多战略,计划和磋商,即它表示将有助于让国家对净零的道路。亚慱官网碳简介已经编制了一些白皮书的关键即将举行的时间。

Date 事件
2021年初 热建筑策略
春天2021. Hydrogen Strategy
春天2021. Smart Systems Plan
春天2021. Final Net Zero Economic Review
春天2021. 推出储能和灵活性创新竞争
春天2021. Decarbonisation of Transport Plan
春天2021. Consultation on Heat Networks and Local Authorities
春天2021. Green Jobs Taskforce's Action Plan
春天2021. 工业脱碳战略
2021年6月 立法六碳预算的截止日期
11月2021年11月 COP26气候峰会
20.21. 2025年新建建筑物结束气网连接的咨询
20.21. Consultation on regulatory measures to improve the energy performance of homes
20.21. Consultation on providing customers with information on carbon content on energy service
20.21. 关于OFGEM战略政策声明的磋商
20.21. Consultation on regulatory measures to improve the energy performance of homes
20.22. 生物质战略
Sharelines from this story
  • 深入问答:英国的“能源白皮书”如何旨在解决气候变化?
  • 深度问答:“能源白皮书”是否让英国走上了净零排放的道路?

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